The concept of One Person Company in India was introduced through the Companies Act, 2013 to support entrepreneurs who on their own are capable of starting a venture by allowing them to create a single person economic entity. One of the biggest advantages of a One Person Company (OPC) is that there can be only one member in an OPC, while a minimum of two members are required for incorporating and maintaining a Private Limited Company or a Limited Liability Partnership (LLP). Similar to a Private Limited Company, a One Person Company is a separate legal entity from its promoter, offering limited liability protection to its sole shareholder, while having continuity of business and being easy to incorporate.
Though a One Person Company allows a lone Entrepreneur to operate a corporate entity with limited liability protection, an OPC does have a few limitations. For instance, every One Person Company (OPC) must nominate a nominee Director in the MOA and AOA of the Company - who will become the owner of the OPC in case the sole Director is disabled. Also, a One Person Company must be converted into a Private Limited Company if it crosses an annual turnover of Rs.2 crores and must file audited financial statements with the Ministry of Corporate Affairs at the end of each Financial Year like all types of Companies. Therefore, it is essential for the Entrepreneur to carefully consider the features of a One Person Company before incorporation.
The concept of One Person Company in India was introduced by Dr. Jamshed J. Irani in his Report on Company Law dated 31st May, 2oo5 . As per the report, Dr. Irani recommended that with the increasing use of information technology and emergence of a strong service sector in India, it was time for the Government to empower entrepreneurs who on their own are capable of developing ideas and participating in the marketplace. He suggested that entrepreneurs who on their own are capable of starting a venture should not be made to do it through an association of persons, and should be able to create a single person economic entity in the form of ‘One Person Company’. Further, it was also suggested that such an entity may be provided with a simpler regime through exemptions so that the single entrepreneur is not compelled to fritter away his time, energy and resources on procedural matters.
This led to the introduction of “One Person Company” in the Companies Bill 2013, which got its assent in the Lok Sabha on 18 December 2012 and in the Rajya Sabha on 8 August 2013. After obtaining the assent of the President of India on 29 August 2013, it has become the Companies Act, 2013.
Till the introduction of One Person Company in India, the Limited Liability and Continuous Existence feature was only available to an association of persons such as a Private Limited Company or Limited Liability Partnership or a Limited Company. With the introduction of One Person Company, the limited liability and continuous existence feature is now also available for One Person Company, which is an entity with just one member. As One Person Company has just one member, it is necessitated by the law for the single member of the Company to designate another person in the Memorandum of Association, who on the event of subscriber’s death or incapacity shall become the person to contract. This mechanism provides an adequate safeguard to ensure continuous existence of the entity even in case of incapacitation of the single member.
All companies in India are required to hold an annual general meeting each year, in addition to any other meetings and not more than fifteen months should elapse between the dates of subsequent annual general meetings. One Person Company is exempt from holding an annual general meeting or extraordinary general meetings. The resolution signed by the single Director and entered into the minutes book is sufficient, in lieu of a General / Extraordinary General Meeting.
Every company in India is required to prepare and file financial statements that includes balance sheet, profit and loss account, cash flow statement, statement of changes in equity and explanatory notes. In case of One Person Company, cash flow statement is not required.
Before exploring the concept of a one person company, let us have a brief understanding of the various types of companies that can be formed. A company can be established for a lawful purpose by the following number of persons:
Unlike a private limited company, a one person company has certain restrictions associated with its incorporation. Hence, before starting an OPC registration, its essential to understand the constraints and ensure the promoter is eligible as per the Companies Act to register a OPC.
Thus, a one-person company can be formed by an Indian citizen who has his/her presence in India for at least 182 days during the immediately preceding calendar year. A person can incorporate not more than one OPC. Finally, an OPC is prohibited from having a minor as its member.
The rules for incorporation of one person company requires that the sole member of a One Person Company should include the name of a nominee in the Companies MOA, who will undertake the entity after the expiry or incapacity of the former. Moreover, the document must contain the written consent of the nominee, which must also be filed with the Registrar during incorporation along with the MOA and AOA.
The nominee is entitled to withdraw his/her consent, in which case the sole member is required to nominate another member as a legal heir within 15 days of the notice of withdrawal. The nomination of new personnel must be intimated to the Company through a written consent in Form INC-3. The Company, in turn, is required to file the notice of withdrawal of consent along with the intimation of the new nominee with the Registrar in Form INC 4.
The sole member of a 'One Person Company' is empowered to change the nominee of the Company for any reason whatsoever, by providing notice in writing to the Company. Again, the new nominee must consent to the nomination in Form INC 3, and the Company must file the notice of change and consent of the nominee with the Registrar along with the applicable fee, within 30 days of receiving the intimation of change.
If a nominee becomes in-charge of the one person company due to the cessation of the original member's term owing to the death or incapacity of the latter, the new member must appoint a nominee as a replacement.
If a One Person Company or an officer of such Company is not compliant with the specified regulations, the entity or the officer will incur penalties which could be as high as Rs 10,000. Further, the penalty will be increased by a fine of Rs 1,000 for each day of default.
The process for incorporation of a One Person Company can be divided into four steps as under:
Digital signature certificate must be obtained for the sole promoter and the nominee for processing the incorporation. Application for DSC would require passport size photos of the applicant, identity proof and address proof.
In parallel to the Digital Signature applicaiton, the application for name reservation can be submitted to the MCA. Name approval applications are processed by the MCA in 24-72 hours. The name suggested must conform to the naming standards, and the name of the OPC must end or include the words (OPC).
After obtaining name approval, incorporation application can be filed to the MCA with signed Memorandum of Association (MOA) and Articles of Association (AOA). Further, the identity proof, address proof and residence proof of the member and nominee would be required. In addition to the MOA, AOA, identity proof, address proof, other incorporation documents like affidavits and declaration of the sole promoter must be submitted. Further, the consent of the nominee director must also be attached in Form INC-3.
On filing for incorporation, approval is granted by the Registrar of Companies (ROC). In case there are any issues with the documents submitted, the application for incorporation can be resubmitted.
Once the incorporation certificate is obtained, the OPC would initiate the process for bank account opening. IndiaFilings can help you open a bank current account. Once the bank account is opened, the promoter must deposit the amount mentioned in the MOA of the Company.
Once, the equity capital is infused into the Bank's current account; the Company can file for the commencement of business with the MCA. Commence of Business certificate must be obtained with 180 days of incorporation to avoid a penalty.
Finally, In case notice of the situation related to registered office was not filed during incorporation, it must be filed after incorporation within 30 days. Documents required for filing INC-22 are:
A detailed comparison of One Person Company (OPC) vs Private Limited Company in India. Currently its better to register a Private Limited Company than OPC.
One person company is a type of company introduced by the Companies Act, 2013 that has one person as a shareholder and director. During the incorporation of a one person company, the sole director & shareholder must propose a person as his/her nominee.
Process for company registration as announced by the MCA for the year 2018. The MCA has simplified the company incorporation process by introducing Reserve Unique Name (RUN) form for simplifying name approval process and reducing incorporation fee for private limited companies.
List of documents required for company registration in India. Documents required for Indian or Foreign Director, registered office and shareholder in company.
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Opening a current account for a one person company is easier when compared to opening of current account for a sole proprietorship firm as a company is a registered legal entity – recognized by law. Therefore, once a company is incorporated, a bank account can be opened in the name of a company with the incorporation certificate of the company and identity/address proof of the Directors.
A Digital Signature establishes the identity of the sender or signee electronically while filing documents through the Internet. The Ministry of Corporate Affairs (MCA) mandates that the Directors sign some of the application documents using their Digital Signature. Hence, a Digital Signature is required for all Directors of a proposed Company.
Director Identification Number is a unique identification number assigned to all existing and proposed Directors of a Company. It is mandatory for all present or proposed Directors to have a Director Identification Number. Director Identification Number never expires and a person can have only one Director Identification Number.
Authorized capital of a Company is the amount of shares a company can issue to it shareholders. Companies have to pay the Government an authorized capital fee to issue shares in a Company. Companies have to pay authorized capital fee for a minimum of Rs.1 lakh.
To incorporate a One Person Company, a Director and a nominee is required. A nominee member is one, who shall, in the event of promoter member`s death or incapacitation become a member of the Company.
Only a natural person who is an Indian citizen and a resident in India is eligible to incorporate a One Person Company or be a nominee member. The Director or Nominee must also be over 18 years of age. A person can incorporate upto five One Person Companies.
One Person Company can be started with any amount of capital. However, fee must be paid to the Government for issuing a minimum of shares worth Rs.1 lakh [Authorized Capital Fee] during the incorporation of the OPC. There is no requirement to show proof of capital invested during the incorporation process.
An address in India where the registered office of the One Person Company will be situated is required. The premises can be a commercial / industrial / residential where communication from the MCA will be received.
No, you will not have to be present at our office or appear at any office for the incorporation of a One Person Company. All the documents can be scanned and sent through email to our office. Some documents will also have to be couriered to our office.
Identity proof and address proof is mandatory for all the proposed Director and Nominee of the One Person Company. PAN Card is mandatory. In addition, the landlord of the registered office premises must provide a No Objection Certificate for having the registered office in his/her premises and must submit his/her identity proof and address proof.
IndiaFilings.com can incorporate a One Person Company in 7-15 days. The time taken for incorporation will depend on submission of relevant documents by the client and speed of Government Approvals. To ensure speedy incorporation, please choose a unique name for your Company and ensure you have all the required documents prior to starting the incorporation process.
To incorporate a One Person Company quickly, make sure the proposed name of the Company is very unique. Names that are similar to an existing company / limited liability partnership / trademark can be rejected and additional time will be required for resubmission of names.
Last updated: Jan 13, 2021