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Procedure for Trademark Opposition in India


Procedure for Trademark Opposition in India

Registering a trademark is the first move for individuals and businesses aiming to safeguard their distinct brand marks. This entails applying for exclusive rights over a specific trademark, like a logo or tagline. After submission, the appropriate authorities thoroughly review the trademark application to assess its qualification for registration. Nonetheless, there may be instances where parties have legitimate grounds to contest the registration of a trademark. This leads to the process of trademark opposition in India. In this article, we’ll explore the complexities of opposing trademark registration and the streamlined trademark opposition procedure to resolve the problem.

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What is a Trademark?

A trademark is a distinctive sign, symbol, design, or expression that identifies and distinguishes the products or services of one entity from those of others in the marketplace. Trademarks can include brand names, logos, slogans, and even distinctive packaging features. The primary function of a trademark is to serve as a source identifier, helping consumers recognize the origin or brand associated with a particular good or service.

By registering a trademark, the owner gains exclusive rights to use it with specified products or services and can legally prevent others from using a similar mark in a way that could confuse consumers. Trademarks are crucial assets for businesses as they build brand identity and loyalty and protect the brand’s reputation and goodwill in the market.

Trademark Registration

Trademark registration is the process through which an individual or business officially obtains the exclusive rights to use a trademark that identifies and distinguishes their goods or services from those of others. 

Registering a trademark is a multi-step process to secure exclusive rights to a brand identity. Here’s a simplified overview:

  • Trademark Search: Begin with a thorough trademark search to ensure no similar or conflicting trademarks are registered or pending. This helps avoid potential opposition.
  • Application Filing: Submit a detailed trademark registration application to the relevant authorities, specifying the mark and its intended use.
  • Examination: The Trademark Registry reviews the application to verify compliance with legal requirements.
  • Publication: If the application passes the examination, the mark is published in the Trademark Journal for public review.
  • Trademark Opposition Period: During this four-month phase, anyone can raise objections to the trademark registration.
  • Response and Hearing: If an opposition occurs, both parties can respond and present their case during the opposition proceedings.
  • Trademark Registration: In the absence of successful opposition or objections and after meeting all requirements, the trademark is registered, granting exclusive rights to the owner.

What is Trademark Opposition?

Trademark opposition under trademark law in India is a legal challenge raised against the registration of a trademark. This process allows third parties to object to registering a new trademark application that they believe could infringe upon their trademark rights or cause confusion among consumers due to similarity with an existing trademark.

The trademark opposition in India can be filed during a specific period after the trademark application has been approved by the examining authority and published in the official trademark journal or gazette for public viewing.

Importance of  Trademark Opposition

The trademark opposition procedure in India is crucial for ensuring that only suitable trademarks get registered. It allows the public to participate and helps prevent the approval of trademarks that could confuse consumers or infringe on existing brands.

This process:

  • Lets anyone challenge a trademark they believe shouldn’t be registered.
  • Protects existing trademark owners by stopping similar trademarks from being registered.
  • Keeps the marketplace clear by avoiding misleading or generic trademarks.
  • Ensures trademarks meet legal and ethical standards.
  • Helps avoid future legal issues and costs by resolving potential conflicts early.

It’s important for those involved in a trademark opposition under trademark law in India, whether challenging or defending a trademark, to follow the process carefully and meet all deadlines. For guidance and support through this process, reaching out to professionals like IndiaFilings can be very helpful, as they offer expert advice and assistance in trademark opposition matters.

Who is Eligible to File a Trademark Opposition?

Under the Trademarks Act, 1999, specifically Section 21, the ability to initiate a trademark opposition procedure is broad and inclusive, allowing virtually any party with a concern or interest to file a notice of opposition trademark. This encompasses not only direct competitors or businesses operating in related fields but also individuals, companies, trusts, partnership firms, and essentially any legal entity or person who believes that registering a particular trademark would adversely affect their interests or violate legal or regulatory standards.

Reasons for Opposing a Trademark Registration

The reasons for opposing trademark registration are diverse, and they aim to ensure that only distinctive, non-deceptive, and legally compliant trademarks are registered. Key grounds for opposition include:

  • Similarity with Registered Trademarks: If a trademark is identical or closely resembles an already registered trademark, especially about similar goods or services, it may confuse consumers.
  • Descriptive Nature: Trademarks merely descriptive of the goods or services they represent, without any distinctive character, are generally not registrable. This ensures businesses can freely use language describing their products or services.
  • Lack of Distinctiveness: A trademark must be distinctive enough to distinguish one enterprise’s goods or services from another. Marks that lack this distinctiveness cannot fulfil the trademark’s primary function.
  • Generic Terms: Terms that have become common in the current language or established business practices for the goods or services in question cannot be monopolized by trademark registration.
  • Bad Faith Applications: Applications made in bad faith, such as those intended to pre-empt a known trademark’s use by another party, can be opposed.
  • Legal Prohibitions: Trademarks prohibited by law or that violate legal regulations, including marks that are deceptive, scandalous, or contrary to public order or morality, are not registrable.
  • Likelihood of Confusion or Deception: Marks likely to cause confusion or deceive the public, for example, by implying a geographical origin, quality, or characteristic that the goods or services do not possess, can be opposed.
  • Offensive Marks: Trademarks that might offend the religious sentiments of any class or section of citizens are not permissible.
  • Prohibition under the Emblem and Names Act, 1950: Marks that are prohibited under the Emblem and Names (Prevention of Improper Use) Act of 1950, such as national symbols or emblems, cannot be registered.

Procedure for Trademark Opposition in India

The trademark opposition process consists of several key stages, including those related to evidence submission, which are as follows: Notice of Opposition trademark – Any individual or entity can initiate a trademark opposition within four months of the trademark application’s publication in the trademark journal. This opposition is formalized by submitting a notice, utilizing Form TM-O, and completing the necessary fee payment. The notice should encompass specific details regarding the trademark application, information about the opposing party, and the grounds for the opposition. The Registrar then serves a copy of this notice to the applicant.

The Form TM-O is attached here for reference:

  • Counterstatement: In response to the opposition, the applicant must file a counterstatement with the Registrar within two months of receiving the notice of opposition trademark. This counterstatement is prepared using Form TM-O and should present the applicant’s perspective and factual information. It’s important to note that failing to submit a counterstatement within the specified period will result in abandoning the trademark registration application.

This step allows the applicant to explain their side of the case and present supporting information.

  • Evidence Submission – Stage One: After receiving the counter-reply from the applicant, the opposing party is given a two-month window to gather and submit supporting documents and evidence. This stage allows them to strengthen their opposition case by providing additional proof. They may also indicate their intention to introduce more documents during the hearing.
  • Evidence Submission – Stage Two: If the applicant believes it’s necessary, they can use this stage to submit their evidence or inform the registry about their intention to present additional documents during the upcoming hearing.
  • Optional Evidence Submission – Stage Three: This stage allows the opposing party to submit additional evidence if they deem it necessary. It’s important to note that if they choose not to provide additional evidence in this stage, a hearing may still be scheduled based on the evidence presented in the previous stages.

The final stages of the trademark opposition procedure are as follows:

  • Hearing and Decision: After exchanging evidence and document submissions, the Registrar sets an initial hearing date and notifies both parties. If the opposing party does not appear on this date, the opposition is dismissed, and the trademark proceeds to registration.

Conversely, the application is considered abandoned if the applicant fails to appear. During this phase, the Registrar considers the written arguments presented by both parties during the proceedings.

After thoroughly examining all evidence and arguments, the Registrar formally decides to either approve the trademark registration or reject the application. This decision is communicated to both parties at the addresses they provided.

This marks the conclusion of the process of trademark opposition under trademark law in India, and a decision is reached regarding whether the trademark will be registered or not.

When seeking trademark registration, challenges in the application process typically fall into two main categories:

Understanding the distinctions between these two categories is crucial for applicants to navigate the trademark registration process effectively. Click here to learn more about the differences between Trademark Objection and Opposition.


In conclusion, a trademark registration certificate is issued if the Registrar approves the applicant’s case. On the other hand, if the Registrar rules in favour of the opposing party, the trademark registration application is rejected.

This outcome determines whether the trademark will be officially registered or not.

Expert Trademark Opposition Assistance from IndiaFilings

IndiaFilings provides valuable assistance in handling the complex trademark opposition process in India. Our team of experienced professionals can help you at every stage, from preparing and filing the required documents to responding to opposition and building a strong case for your trademark registration. With our expertise, you can enhance your prospects of successfully registering your trademark.

Let IndiaFilings be your reliable partner in trademark opposition, ensuring effective protection for your brand.