A Certificate of Origin (CO) is an important international trade document that certifies that the goods in an export shipment were entirely obtained, produced, manufactured, or processed in a specific country. They declare the product's 'nationality' and also serve as a declaration by the exporter to meet customs or trade requirements.
A preferential certificate of origin is a document that certifies that the goods in a specific shipment meet the definitions of a specific bilateral or multilateral free trade agreement. This certificate is typically required by importing countries to determine whether imports are eligible for preferential treatment under the applicable agreement.
Certificates of origin are more practical because they allow for benefit claims beyond MFN treatment. The majority of discussion on certificates of origin usually focuses on the preferential one. The sections on forms and formats below will help to clarify the variety of this type of certificate of origin.
Non-preferential origin certificates are used within the WTO framework for most-favored-nation treatment, as specified in Article 1.2 of the Agreement on Rules of Origin. This type of certificate certifies the product's country of origin but does not entitle it to preferential tariffs under preferential trade regimes.
During trade wars, a certificate of origin may be required to show that the product in question is not from a sanctioned country. Products originating in countries subject to trade remedies are subject to non-preferential rules of origin, so this form could be required.
Certificate of origin is required in international trade transactions. It certifies the origin of the product, which serves as the basis for determining tariffs and other trade measures.
Unlike the exporter or manufacturer, the importer frequently has little knowledge of how the product meets the origin criteria. The importer is required to provide proof. An importer's failure to submit a certificate of origin may result in the product being denied preferential treatment.
This system is in place to help developing countries by giving them preferential treatment in trade tariffs imposed by industrialized and developed countries. It is a unilateral non-contractual instrument based on a non-reciprocity extension of tariff concessions.
This system extends tariff concessions among developing countries that have signed an agreement. The Export Inspection Council (EIC) is the sole authority under GSTP to issue Certificates of Origin.
Tariff concessions are only available to SAARC member countries.
Under APTA, India, China, South Korea, Sri Lanka, and Bangladesh currently exchange tariff concessions. APTA seeks to reduce tariff and non-tariff barriers to trade in the Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) region.
This is a free trade agreement signed by India and Sri Lanka. EIC has sole authority to issue Certificates of Origin under this agreement.
This agreement between India and Thailand is to implement the Early Harvest Scheme, which gives tariff preference to products covered by this protocol. Under the India-Thailand Free Trade Agreement, the Early Harvest Scheme provides tariff preferences for imports of items that meet the Rules of Origin criteria specified by the Department of Revenue, Ministry of Finance. Under this protocol, the Export Inspection Council is the sole agency authorized to issue Certificates of Origin.
The EIC is the sole authority to issue Certificates of Origin under this agreement between India and Malaysia.
The Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA) was signed by India and South Korea to expand business and commercial opportunities between the two countries. Under this agreement, EIC has sole authority to issue Certificates of Origin.
This agreement is between India and Japan to improve and protect bilateral investments. The EIC has sole authority to issue Certificates of Origin under this agreement.
ASEAN Member States and India have agreed to open their respective markets by gradually reducing and eliminating duties on goods with a 76.4 percent coverage.
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