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Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF)

Sub-Mission on Agroforestry

Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF)

The Government of India has implemented the Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF) under the National Mission for Sustainable Agriculture (NMSA) to promote tree plantation on farmland along with the productivity enhancement of crops and cropping system. The principal objective of implementing this scheme is to address the development of agroforestry practices for the increased crop production and economic gain in the country. The scheme is being performed in the States which have exempted selected tree species under transit regulations. Let us look in detail about Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF) in this article.

To know about the National Agroforestry Policy

Objectives of the Scheme

The objectives of the SMAF are given below:

  • To provide significant support and expand tree plantation in a complementary and integrated manner with the crops and livestock to improve the productivity of crops, employment opportunities, income generation and to improve the livelihoods of rural houses, especially the small farmers.
  • To ensure the production of quality planting material such as seeds, seedlings, hybrids, clones, improved varieties, shoots tips, root tips and pollen grains.
  • To popularise various Agroforestry methods and practises which are suitable for different agro-ecological zones and land use conditions.
  • To provide extension and building capacity support for the agroforestry research sector.
  • To build opportunities for small-scale forest-based enterprises and also creates a database on the area about the status of soil organic carbon, information and knowledge about the Agroforestry

Mission Strategies

The Sub-Mission on Agroforestry (SMAF) adopts the following strategies to achieve the objectives mentioned above:

  • Enhancing the coverage of tree plantations in the lands that are suitable to local agro-climatic and land use conditions to create protection on their livelihood, environmental and biodiversity by encouraging all the farmers to plant trees in their farmland along with crops and cropping systems and/ or livestock as an integral element of the farming system.
  • This mission promotes the setting up from new small nurseries to hi-tech big nurseries for the producing quality planting materials to meet the requirement of the planting material /seeds for the farmers.
  • On promoting various Agroforestry practices or methods suitable to various changes will support the adaptation and mitigation efforts during the climatic conditions changes. It promotes sustainable Agrisilvicultural systems, Agrisilvopastoral system, Silvipastoral systems and other systems of agroforestry through Apiculture with Trees, Aqua forestry etc.
  • Promoting Boundary and Peripheral Plantation on farms will serve as follows:
    • Fencing of farm
    • Improving soil moisture
    • Stabilizing farm bonds
    • Demarcation of farm boundary
    • Protecting from soil erosion
    • Enrichment of soil organic matter without changing the coverage under crops.
  • Low-Density Plantation on Farm Lands that includes the intermediate or strip plantations, the High-Density Block Plantation will also be supported along with the crops and cropping system as agroforestry system.

To know about Sub-Mission on Agricultural Mechanization (SMAM)

Implementation of the Scheme

The scheme is executed only in the states that are having liberalized transit regulations for timber transport. This will also be extended to other states as per the Government notifications. The liberal transit rules will act as a precondition for availing all the benefit under this programme.

Project Activities Under SMAF

The Sub-Mission has the following five broad components that are listed below

Nursery Development for the quality planting material (NDQPM): The assistance amount will be granted for the nurseries (for small, big and hi-tech nurseries) for producing quality material of plantings to meet the requirements of planting material

Peripheral and Boundary Plantation (PBP): To make use of the areas around the Peripheral of the farmer’s fields, to add more income to the farmer’s basket, the tree species can be grown as peripheral/ boundary plantations. It helps in stabilising the bunds and also reducing soil erosion.

Low-Density Plantation on the Farm Lands (LDPFL): Low-Density Block Plantation (LDBP) ranging between 100 plants per hector to more than 500 plants per hector without sacrificing the yield of the existing crops and cropping systems, would be incentivised at the specific rates as applicable to per plant.

High-Density Block Plantation (HDBP): High-density Block Plantations on the farmlands (HDBP) will be supported as an additional source of income to the farmers. The differential planting densities that ranging between 500 plants per hector to 1500 plants per hector as intermediate blocks or strip plantations or windbreaks will be supported. The farmers can take up the block plantation in waste and degraded areas not suitable for growing crops to make productive use these lands and increase income opportunities for farmers. In addition, the tress will also help in enriching the soil and making it fertile and more productive thereby bringing land under crops in times to come.

Demonstration of the Agroforestry Models: Capacity Building and Training will be the important interventions of the sub-mission programme. Activities include training of the farmers or field workers to ensure growing quality planting material, awareness campaign skill development, Publications, Information sharing, exposure visits at national/ international levels, Workshops/ seminars at national or international levels etc. would be supported under this programme. States can use up to 5% of the funds allocated for the capacity building and training activities

Capacity Building and Trainings: Demonstration of specific projects to bridge the gap and for the purposes of extensions on the area-specific innovative agroforestry methods by SAUs/ ICAR Institutes/ CSIR/ CAUs/ ICFRE institutes/ State Government/ other National and International agencies/ organizations will be supported in the particular field of climate-resilient agroforestry system and studies on the carbon sequestration, carbon footprint, nitrogen fixation etc., with the approval obtained from the Project Sanctioning Committee on case to case basis.

Funding Pattern and Pattern of Assistance

  • The Sub-Mission on Agroforestry will be operated under the umbrella scheme of NMSA and funding pattern as per the State Government basis for all states except for the 8 states of North East Region, the hilly states of Himachal Pradesh, Uttarakhand and Jammu & Kashmir where it would be certain fund sharing. For Union Territories, 100% assistance amount will be granted by the Government of India.
  • The farmers would be provided with financial assistance to the maximum extent of 50% of the total cost of the interventions (limited to 50% of the estimated cost as indicated in the Cost norms) for the respective responses.
  • The farmer’s groups, Farmer Producers Organization (FPO) and cooperatives can also avail the benefit of this programme, but the assistance amount can be accessed as per norms and provisions applicable to the individual farmers.
  • At least 50% of the allocated fund is to be utilised for the small, marginal farmers of which at least 30% beneficiaries are of women farmers. Further 16% and 8% of the total allocated fund or in the proportion of SC or ST population in the district will be utilised for the Special Component Plan (SCP) and Tribal Sub Plan (TSP) respectively.

Cost Norms of Activities

The cost norms and the funding pattern of various activities are tabulated below:

Cost Norms and Pattern of Assistance for NDQPM

S.No. Nursery area (hectare) Indicative Unit cost
1. Small Nursery (0.5 ha unit) INR 10 Lakhs
2. Big Nursery (1.0 ha unit) INR 16 Lakhs
3. Hi-tech Nursery INR 40 Lakhs

Cost Norms and Pattern of Assistance for PBP

S.No. Type of Interventions Indicative Unit cost
1. Pre-Plant activities/Land clearing/maintenance etc. Rs. 10
2. Digging/Planting etc Rs. 6
3. Single unit Planting material etc Rs. 15
4. Transportation charges Rs. 1
5. Critical inputs through FYM, Fert, seed treatment, PP chemicals, etc Rs. 10
6. Planting cost  Rs. 2
7. Fencing Rs. 10
8. Maintenance (weeding+ watering etc.) Rs. 16
Total of Rs. 70


(i) The activity cost indicated above are conditional and states have the adjustability to formulate their own evaluation based on the local requirements that are subject to a maximum of Rs. 70/- per plant

(ii) The assistance amount will be granted in the year wise proportion that is specific for 4 years

Cost Norms and Pattern of Assistance LDPFL

S.No. Type of plantations’ magnitude (Number of plants/ hectare) Indicative total cost
1. Less than 100 As per actual Number of plants at Rs. 70/- per plant
2. Greater than 100 up to 500 28000 (or in proportion to planting intensity)

Note: The cost calculation will be on the proportionate basis as per the number of plants/ trees per block

Cost Norms and Pattern of Assistance

S.No. The magnitude of block Plantations (number of plants/ block of 1 hectare) Indicative Total cost (Rs) for the block
1. 500 to 1000 (spacing 3.5m * 3.5m) Rs. 30000
2. Greater than 1000 to 1200 (spacing 3m * 3m) Rs. 35000
3. Greater than 1200 to 1500 (spacing 2.5m * 2.5m) Rs. 45000
4. Greater than 1500 (spacing less than 2.5m * 2.5m)) Rs. 50000

Honorarium and Basic qualifications/ Consultants/ Experience for Advisor/  Technical Assistants/ MTS etc.

Level/ Designation Monthly honorarium
National Level Advisors and Consultants Rs. 70,000/- per month + service charges as per the norms.
Technical Assistants Rs. 30,000/- per month
State Level Advisors/ Consultants Rs. 50,000/- per month
State Level Technical Assistants Rs. 25000/- per month
District Level Advisors/ Consultants Rs. 30,000/- per month
District Level Technical Assistants Rs. 20000/- per month

Verification Process

The verification of the plantations will be done physically by the competent authority of the State Government and a verification certificate has to be obtained by each beneficiary under this programme. The Soil Health Cards will be made a pre-requisite for the farmer’s beneficiaries under the programme to indicate the status of soil carbon and facilitating the assessment of Soil Carbon improvement from time to time.